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Recruitment & Retention

“My data demonstrates that seemingly micro interactions and experiences have macro consequences, specifically retention in midwifery education programs and ultimately the diversification of the nation’s corps of midwives.”  Goode, 2014, p. 86

Why Needed?
Why Needed?
  • "Too often, high school students of color, low-income students, and first-generation students feel that college is a place they do not belong. For students who decide to enroll in college, it is often an isolating experience where they do not feel accepted, welcomed, or well-treated. Colleges and universities can work to make their campuses inclusive, safe, and hospitable environments, where all students feel respected, to help ensure that everyone is able to pursue their educational opportunities to their fullest potential." (USDE, 2016, p.47)

  • "Campus leadership, including a diverse faculty, plays an important role in achieving an inclusive institution. Faculty’s curricular decisions and pedagogy, including their individual interactions with students, can foster inclusive climates. Also, students report it is important that they see themselves reflected in the faculty and curriculum to which they are exposed to create a sense of belonging and inclusiveness." (USDE, 2016, p.37)

  • "The experience of faculty of color occurred in the context of pervasive racism; this included the historical context of racism with racial and ethnic exclusion, contemporary racism, traditions in academic nursing, and external mandates to expand ethnic and racial diversity in nursing." (Hassouneh & Lutz, 2013)


(In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health-Care Workforce, 2004)

  • Strategies Used in a Successful Minority Retention Project (2005):

(Gardner, The Journal of Nursing Education, 44(12))

The Role of Faculty:

  • Research indicates that greater representation of underrepresented groups among faculty may increase students’ sense of academic validation. See The Impact of Faculty Diversity in Diversity in Teaching and Learning: Affirming Students as Empowered Learners (Hurtado & Alvarado, 2013)

Fostering Retention
Focusing on Recruitment
Fostering Retention
  • ​​"The degree to which culturally engaging campus environments (CECE) exist at postsecondary institutions is both directly and indirectly (through their impact on sense of belonging, academic dispositions, and academic performance) associated with success among their diverse student populations. In sum, the CECE Model suggests that the greater the extent to which institutions foster and maintain culturally engaging campus environments, the more likely their environments will allow their diverse student populations to thrive in college." See Figure 2 (right).

  • See Retention and Success p.22 Making Diversity Work on Campus: A Research-Based Perspective (2005).

Fostering Faculty Retention:

  • Retention of Faculty of Color in Academic Nursing (Hamilton & Haozous 2017):​

    • Administrative leadership is crucial to change current Faculty of color (FOC) retention concerns.

    • FOC retention relies on mentoring, organizational climate, and workplace parity.

    • See also Faculty Mentoring Resources

  • See p. 38 regarding the value of mentorship to help address relatively high rates of turnover among
    underrepresented faculty (USDE 2016)


Focusing on Recruitment
  • "Each element of the enrollment process (outreach, recruitment, admission, financial aid/scholarships) can play an important role in achieving diversity goals." p.6.  See also pp. 17-23 (Taylor, Milem & Coleman, 2016)

TIP: "Ctrl-F" within the document and search for the words "enrollment" and "recruitment."  

Staff/Faculty Recruitment Resource:

“You know what’s crazy? There was absolutely no one that looks like me in my program! No one who was teaching me that looked like me! And that was important to me because, as you know, race is so salient in midwifery. I wanted to learn from more experienced sisters who have worked with our women. That matters in theory, practice, clinical skills…all of it.

But there was a black receptionist. It’s crazy because she was not an educator but just her sheer presence was incredible. She got me. Do you understand what I mean by that? She knew what it meant to be black in a white institution…a place of…power. It did not matter that she was not a student. She got me. That mattered. I love that woman to this very day.” - Angela in 

Goode, K., 2014, p. 81

The Important Role of

Faculty of Color


Interviewed faculty of color "played a critical role in the survival and success of students and other faculty of color through processes of connecting, guiding and supporting, and challenging racism."

Hassouneh & Lutz, 2013

Their diversity was likely to influence their socialization in their educational experiences, even to the point of questioning whether they would even try to apply to a program.
‘...But we're insecure … fear of filling out this application form … a fear of failure … so you don't even attempt …”

Kennedy et al, 2006, p. 88

“It is our responsibility to women, to the profession, and to our future to recruit and mentor as many diverse future midwives as possible. This means opening the door and being there to support them when they step through it.” 

Kennedy et al, 2006, p. 90

Figure 2

SOURCE: National Institute for Transformation and Equity. "Note: The figures and text for this page were adapted from Museus, S. D. (2014). The Culturally Engaging Campus Environments (CECE) Model: A new theory of college success among racially diverse student populations. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. New York: Springer."

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